The development of the hottest steel industry in J

2022-07-24
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The development of Japan's iron and steel industry is of great significance for reference. The phenomenon of extensive development, quantity but quality, and price war in China's iron and steel industry has a long history

China's iron and steel industry has a long history of extensive development, seeking quantity but not quality, and fighting a price war

as early as 200017 and the year of standard configuration of Jinan experimental machine, the State Economic and Trade Commission required small steel mills using backward processes and production equipment to shut down according to law. At that time, the urgent need to optimize the iron and steel production capacity and structure was emerging. Since then, the steel industry has also experienced several rounds of capacity control policies, but the effect is not ideal

in the round of eliminating backward production capacity from 2006 to 2007, the national development and Reform Commission required all localities to complete the elimination of blast furnace production capacity of 300 cubic meters or less and converter and electric furnace production capacity of 20 tons or less on schedule. However, by the end of 2008, among the 13 industries listed in the list of eliminating backward production capacity during the Eleventh Five Year Plan period, electrolytic aluminum, paper and other industries had basically achieved their goals, while the iron and steel industry (including iron making and steelmaking capacity) was decreasing more and more

the main reasons for the unsatisfactory effect of eliminating backward production capacity in various regions are as follows: state-owned steel enterprises usually make a large contribution to local taxes and provide more employment opportunities, and local governments have little enthusiasm to shut them down directly. However, some private steel enterprises have relatively high efficiency and low cost per ton of steel, so they can occupy an advantage in the fierce market competition. This part of production capacity is also difficult to remove

all previous adjustments and controls have focused on total capacity control and started to control new projects in strict project approval procedures; For a long time, in order to enter the seemingly profitable steel industry, a large number of enterprises started production without approval

in previous regulation and control, the scale of key production equipment such as blast furnace and converter is used as the standard to divide the encouraged, restricted and eliminated capacity. In order to avoid being eliminated, a considerable number of small and medium-sized enterprises have expanded and transformed their existing production equipment. For example, blast furnaces that were originally eliminated have been expanded to more than 300 cubic meters. Naturally, the production capacity has been continuously expanded

b the effect of merger and reorganization is not obvious.

the effect of eliminating backward production capacity through natural elimination through market competition and shutting down backward production capacity is not ideal, and it is difficult for local led merger and reorganization to make substantive progress

Since the 21st century, the merger and reorganization of domestic iron and steel industry can be divided into two stages

the first stage is from 2000 to 2005. In this stage, the demand for steel in downstream industries such as manufacturing, infrastructure and real estate grows rapidly, and the excess capacity of steel is not prominent; On the contrary, the investment in fixed assets of ferrous metal smelting is booming, the number of steel enterprises including small and medium-sized enterprises is growing rapidly, and the industrial concentration is declining

the second stage began in 2005. The iron and steel industry development policy was issued to support and encourage qualified large enterprise groups to carry out cross regional joint restructuring. Since then, the process of merger and reorganization of the steel industry has accelerated

although the merger of bell since 2005 added that the restructuring process has been accelerated and the number has increased, a considerable part of the restructuring has not achieved the effect of 112; After the completion of some restructuring, the operating efficiency has declined, and even there have been examples of loss making state-owned enterprises leading the restructuring of profitable private enterprises. After 2005, the concentration of iron and steel industry has increased, but the increase is relatively slow

c the law of the jungle is the only way out

in the face of serious overcapacity in the steel industry, the country is also actively looking for a way out. The 12th Five Year Plan for the development of the iron and steel industry clearly states that the iron and steel industry should increase and decrease according to regions, change the current situation of more in the South and less in the north, and optimize the distribution of production capacity

for example, the central region, including Hunan, Hubei, Henan, Anhui, Jiangxi and other provinces, actively promotes structural adjustment and industrial upgrading without increasing the total iron and steel production capacity; Some markets in the western region are relatively independent and have conditions, which can appropriately develop the iron and steel industry and undertake industrial transfer

at the same time, we can also learn from the experience of Japan. The change of Japan's crude steel output is consistent with Japan's postwar economic growth model. After World War II, Japan had a huge demand for steel, and its crude steel production capacity also catered to the rapid growth of demand

however, by the early 1970s, the marginal effect of Japan's investment driven economic growth was decreasing, and the economic growth was moving downward in a platform manner, followed by the reduction of steel demand, and the corresponding decline in corporate profits, capacity utilization, the number of steel enterprises and the number of employees

in the face of overcapacity and insufficient demand in the iron and steel industry, Japan's iron and steel industry is guided by new technologies and products with high added value, occupying the commanding height of the international division of labor, and reducing costs through a number of measures

in addition to the transformation from extensive growth to intensive growth with high value-added new technologies and products as the core, Japan's iron and steel industry has also experienced several waves of mergers and acquisitions, and the industry concentration has continuously increased

with the domestic iron and steel industry facing the cold winter, the development of Japan's iron and steel industry meets the standard gb/t16491 ⑵ 008 electronic universal testing machine, which is of great significance for reference

only by getting rid of the extensive competition that used to rely solely on price war and serious product homogenization, and focusing on industrial upgrading, can China's iron and steel industry usher in a spring chapter by relying on smooth market mechanism to achieve the survival of the fittest and adhering to the principle of mergers and acquisitions

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